Delhi sultanate mainly started after the defeat of last Hindu king Prithviraj Chauhan in 1192 by Mohammad Gauri. Although Gauri had conquered numerous states, it was a formidable challenge to continue his region over them. He did not have any heir.
The Mumluks usually has changed a lot of political and military power in medieval Muslim societies and subsequently for their loyalty they were awarded with the rank of ‘Amirs’ and also ‘Sultans’, as in India by their kings. Muhammad Ghori played an important role in establishing Delhi Sultanate.
Ghori appointed loyal and capable mum looks as governors of various states of his empire. Delhi was governed by a muluk Qutub uddin aibak
Son of the assassination of Ghauri in 1206, these States gradually became independent and thus become the era of Delhi sultanate.
Mamluk Dynasty (1206-1290)
The mughal dynasty was the first stock dynasty to rule Delhi 1290. further expanded area towards Eastern India to include parts of Bangladesh, under their control.
Aibak left the empire to his son Alam Shah in 1210 who was assassinated by Iltutamish in 1211. Iltutmish had the support of the nobles. He is pushed diplomatic relations with Abbasid caliphate and also protected Indian land from Genghis khan’s invasions. After the death of Iltutamish, nobles gain power at the expense of weak rulers.
Mumluk dynasty is credited to have the first woman ruler of India- Razia Sultan. After 4 years of tumultuous rule she was assassinated by nobles of a court. Finally Balban- an influential minister to the eighth sultan, Nasiruddin Mohammed- provided the stability and the strength to the empire. Balban left the throne to his grandson, who was murdered by Khilji chief, thus ending the Mumluk dynasty.
Khilji Dynasty ( 1290-1320)
They were also of Turkey origin but had settled in Afghan region for sometime before proceeding to Delhi. Presents the time Gori came to India. Mohammed bin Bahut Sare hil ji was a servant of Aibak who conquered Bihar and Bengal for Mumluks and held the states as vessels of muluk sultanate.
The khilji’s came to power when the last Mughal ruler was unable to manage either the administration of the factional conflicts between the old Turkish nobility and the new force is led by the khilji’s. Jalaluddin khilji was installed as sultan by affection of nobles who wanted to have invent in the administration. He was a puppet rural who was old and at one time too afraid to enter his own capital.
Jalaluddin was soon murdered by his own son in law and nephew, Alauddin Khilji. Alauddin was successful in his campaign in Deccan and therefore had gained considerable power and influence. Alauddin ruled for 20 years (1296-1316)
Giving stability to Delhi sultanate. He captured Ranthanbore in 1311 and Chittorgarh in 1313, conquered Mandu in 1315 and captured the wealthy Hindu state of Devagiri, also repelling the two Mughal raids. the sultan died in early 1316 and Malik Kafur was attempted usurpation ended in his own death.
Later in 1320, the last Khilji (Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah) was murdered by a former Indian slave, Khusro khan, who had recently become his chief minister and friend.
Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)
After the assassination of the last Khilji ruler by Khusro khan the nobles raised Khusro to the throne. However, he became unpopular among nobles and rulers of other states as they perceive him to be favoring Hindus. Moreover, the assassination was seen by many as mark of disloyalty towards the last emperor.
Thus, Ghaji Malik (ghiyath al-din tughluq) gather the forces of Multan and sindh and defeated khusro khan and laid foundation of tughlaq dynasty.
Ghiyas ud din tughlaq’s son Mohammed bin tughlaq succeeded him to the throne and soon become very unpopular wrong policies. He shifted the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad. He also changed the currency from gold to copper coins which lead to large scale forgery.
Ghiyas-ud-din ruled even for less than a month. And his cousin firoz Shah tughlaq killed him and assumed the throne. Feroz had a week and in at military due to which he could not expand the sultanate. He died in 1388. after that sultan Mohammed khan flight before name entered Delhi on december 18 1398. Delhi was planted 48 days and last of its people massacred on the streets.
Syyidd Dynasty (1414-1451)
After the sucking of Delhi by timur in 1398, there was complete loss of Central authority. Amid this chaos, Sayyids gained power in Delhi. Timur had left his deputy Khizr khan as governor of Multan who later took Delhi and established the Syed dynasty.
However, hey did not take the title of sultan, but rule as nominal governor of timur and his successors. After the string of successors to khijra khan- Mubarak khan Mohammed khan the last dynasty ruler alauddin alam Shah abdicated his throne voluntarily in favour of bahlul khan lodhi on April 19 1451 and left for badaun.
Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526)
The Lodhi dynasty was founded by Bahalol khan Lodhi in 1451. they belonged to pass tune ethnicity and ruled parts of Northern India, Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. Bahlul’s son, sikandar lodhi ruled peacefully while the last Lodhi ruler Ibrahim lodhi first multiple attack from Rajput rulers like Rana sanga.
Constant attacks on the Delhi sultanate made it weak. However, in 1526, it was Babur who defeated Ibrahim lodhi in the first battle of panipat with the help of some l is like Rajput and disloyal lodhi governors.
Mughal Empire (1526- Circa 1764)
Mughal empire was established by Babur and ended up with Shah Alam ll. In between them they were numerous sultan on the throne of Delhi like
- Bahadur Shah
- Jahandar Shah
- Farrukh siyar
- Mohammad Shah
- Ahmad Shah Bahadur
- Alamgir II
- Shahjahan lll
- Shah Alam ll
Most of the rulers tried to consolidate the power through the help of Allies. mughals aquired firearms from ottomans will sultan Bahadur of Gujarat got them from the Portuguese who were present in the West coast of India. Akbar got the empire in verification situation.
Humayu had previously regent control of Punjab Delhi and Agra with person help but Agra and Delhi was lost to sikandar Surya on Humayu’s death. Akbar, led by Bairam khan march towards Delhi and won the second battle of panipat in 1556. Akbar is known to have strengthen the mughal administration through the use of mansabdari system. Shah Jahan is known for his fond for beautiful architecture.
Mughal artistic and architectural achievements were at their peak during the region of Shah jahan. he had a refined aesthetics which made him established grand buildings like Taj Mahal in Agra red fort and jama masjid in Delhi sections of Lahore fort Sheesh Mahal and naulakha pavilion in the tomb of jahangir. He built magnificent garden such as the Shalimar gardens of Lahore.
Aurangzeb the last great Mughal emperor had died and left his empire in chaos. The leadership that emerged was weak and ineffective. Therefore,from then on wards the empire descended into anarchy whenever an emperor was dead. And at last British army defeated the Mughal emperor and started their colonial rule in India.